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                ߣ10515 ʱ䣺2010-2-15 22:02:02
                 
                (̷)ս()ϸӢ뱻Χܴս۾ͶٻǧٽصȵٱδԮˡԻ:ھڶԸΪǰֱΧ֮ˡָлܴ츴ٽ 
                (ʷ塤дˡ)

                    
                 
                ̷ͬشһĹݹٸڸطӿ˷ΣȻȴһ׮̰ڽ˾⽻ǸðйӢǿ֮˳⽻ġ̰¾:()һС˶ķ񸸺ͰͽӵطĹӶŭԹ¹֥ȵطԱ˶ȾȺ󱻹ݹٸ 
                ݽϽϳơ̰ðӢǿˡԹ¹֥永ԱܵʹʱιᶽѲղˡϵðҪ߻֮һʶְ½ 
                񡰹̰Ѿȥ147!ϸDZо̰20034ԡ̰Ϊ˳ƪʷС˵ѪءսѧΪ㳤ƪѡڡʮ¡־ֵοڴڼʷΪҵǰѲˡĵᄚǬǷֱס̨ɱͺߴõϼĵһһ϶שͽ̷ 
                 
                һ֪֮:ʶ 
                 
                ˡʮ(1836)()ƺϵ漮ˡᄚĻ¼±: 
                һʱĸʡǨƺסʱǺԭǨΪɶǨĿǰû޴Ӳ鿼֮ܶԭʡڡſǵصġڹԪ200110оϺˡҪIJοֵ˵DzɶõȨ 
                ˡڼ϶˼סϼͥƶʳòǮҽĸΪˡ˼ǨǶһӪ첹ϴı꿪ʼˡֳһɽӪ 
                ʷ塤дˡһˡĴӾ̽ʮ:ˡ;ʮ 
                ˡʱڹƽġ̫ƽ쿪ʤȻҺʱȴʹһСˡˮƾŻս¸ʬɽѪ˺ɱսĵע 
                (1812~1885)ּũ̷Ԫ(1851)ʮľͬƽ֪Ƽ˺ѲµĻΪֿ̫ƽı׼ﻮ˺պʼ֮һСӪơ() 
                ԸԹ°̧̱˶Զ֮Ωֱ֮ǡǡһô򽻵ƫƽˡȤȻ˲жԭֻDZ߲Ӳ² 
                ̷̫ƽȫַ֮ཫʿϮɳ̫ƽġɳ֮սʱ3̫֮ƽùΧܶս۽ˡƾѲԽΪڹʷ塤дϸ: 
                ̷(ˡ)سɳ潭ļʿҹӪˡҹСDZӪ׷֮ˮѲ֮ίڹ 
                ڹĻԱԼ൱ڽ֮ӪɲʱˡʮвˡԾӪλ˺ְλνɲν̷(1858)ιܱʱˡʮ

                ̷ʮ(1860)Աĺ͹ѲεԶȾټˡߪᶽ 
                 
                ⽮ 
                 
                ˡñթս˼άšھڶࡱı¡ͬʱǿʱ۾ʿҪڡϧˡֻסֹ֧ˡܿɳΪɶõĽ 
                ǿսʶ˵Сǧǧ֮˵ѹ̫ƽսһֱе֧˲żüȺˡ긻λᶽұʮһλܱν٪λܱԱֱӳˡġӪ 
                ְεõ̷ʵ۴ķš°ͼ³°ͼ³ͼ³һ˼ǡ¸ҵĽšӢۺܡ׳ʿȵ 
                ѹƽ͹ս﹦ѫ׿̷ʮһ(1861)͢ٴˡְᶽݼѲͬʱΪƹ͢ˡղ󳼹طȫʡľȨӴ24 
                һݵܶ⽮֮λˡ˶̶ʮʱְٶȹŽ񺱼զ! 
                 
                ط:ˡһĵIJ֮Ե 
                 
                ̰ǿȲ ˡ̸ְˡ½ʱĻݱʼ֮һʱҲ˸ 
                ͬ(1866)ķگղݳΡ¸ܶ 
                ͬˡʮʮ֮кԵֵĽΪˡλСͬĽ½·ƽˡ漴ԡ¤ʡⱡΪﳼˡƸá 
                ּ͢׼˺ˡ֮ʱս¸һΪƽĻ˺ͬʮ(1873)¤ʡ屻ƽ¸ܶղĶͷˡ 
                󼴹(1877)ˡʮһ 
                 
                ֮:140ľ 
                 
                ΪԺյΪһڹ⽻ʷ϶ʷˡӢδ˾ôæЩһٶǭ仹ѧǶڲ²ˡô?ֱ200211ˡҹɽˮǬڸ߽ҿյ:ھȷе㽲̰ 
                ˡʱʮȢסڶͨʿ 
                о׻СعٲֹܡΪԾǹŭɱ˵Ѳˡӹµ֮?ŵĹԱѵŭ֮Ⱥݴ 
                ˡסĶŽǵıؾ֮һٴǷˡץס˰ѱˡ֪ٴҪӭʡĹԱ͹⽫̫ʦΰڷ·мסٵĽļٵٲعˡʼղ̫ʦϱĿһֱԩϰǸˡԭ 
                ǰˡ֮ȴֲҹˡӲˡʱսµǹ˲ΪDzáͻİ취ͨˡμӸ־ۻΪȡˡ̸оԹάϯĿȰĿľDz¶ɫˡ 
                ǿкöԸ𲶾һˡƹ¾˸ڲֳ֮! 
                 
                ˡŮ 
                 
                ˡһν޶ 
                ˡʱ׼ӪȥһյĴ˼ҹǰЪʱ߳һλСݷԼҵʯһڵˮͺܲ˵ؽˡҪ̨ϵIJмҲһɾˡ˵ȴʲʱĬ:ӽһ췢һȢʮˡ淢پҪְ

                ܱˡýӭȢСΪźˡȢΪ 
                ˡһŮ:ӦӦȫӦگŮӦ 
                ˡijӦܴСʮ˴ȥɳμӻῼʱ򷭴ˮؼҺ޷ˡӦȫɽԪ(1875)(1917)²ʮһӦˡΨһŮӦһڸϣĵܵϣΪ1906Ӧ׷ɷϣɷɣձѧǷصһλѧŮ 
                ˡŮӦگ(1876~1932)Ϊͬ˻йʷ˺ص켣 
                Ӧگַﵤ(1876)ԸŲϲŪȭӦگ½ѧѧϰʮ(1904)ٷѱձѧѧڼӦگʶɽ˵ƽܼйͬ˻Ӷʲ׼ĵ·ʮ(1906)ӦگչѲԶĽĴ½Сѧü½ٳѧܰĴɭҢϵӦگܰʱѧ 
                ʮ(1908)Ӧگ봨ת(Ͼ)ھʮıӪܴ屬ͬ˻װϾսӦگʸһٹռ껨̨Ϊ⸴ϾشսлӦگлʱͳɽл½ܳίΪڶʮó(ͼƬ) 
                ԬȨӦگغϳʹפ"916)ԬԹƵӦگΪһᳵξͬ524ӦگڷԳ˾е˺·ǰߵķ 
                (1917)ӦگʲӦɽķá˶ﵣΡǭһ·˾ɽΪ½н(1920)Ӧگų䡰Ѳͳ족ְ֮漴ѾȨԼӴ˸ 
                 
                ˡﱲ 
                 
                ˡﱲؽӦگ֮ǰɻӡӢᄚ(1917)ᄚںʡ 
                ͯʱᄚ꾭游ӦگĴǨȺڳɳϺȵѧʮ(1938)ᄚʮһʱ½ѧУתվУܷѵҵǰѵʱлտѵͷᄚ쳣ķѵξعΪйж(ɻӡ)28жսԱᄚǰտܺը33սᄚӢ³лٵл5ձʽսļܵIJ¼Ⱥڿսиս׿ᄚٻ¡ΪϷɻ 
                ᄚж֪βʮʱᄚ˻Ů̸Ů֮ͬѧϷƸΪүүӵϴʱָǰ˰̺ѯʸ׷֪ǡսΪж־оɻӡսʷ 
                мߵ츳ۻ滭ֽʦͨɵ쵼ġɻӡʮжӵĶӻᄚʦµ˹͹ͬɵ 




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